Posts Tagged ‘collabortation’

Whoever Does the Work Does the Learning: 3 Strategies that Empower All Students

March 6, 2011

This simple statement is a cornerstone of learning. Yet in too many classrooms the reverse is often true.  Consider for a moment how many questions you ask your students versus how many questions or comments your students ask you or one other. The reality for most of us is that teachers ask most of the questions. Teachers too often are also the source of most of the writing and thinking that occurs in a classroom.  Whether it’s a power point that students copy, or a student handout, or a worksheet, teachers are frequently seen as the font or the dispenser of knowledge. Often there is more teacher or publisher generated writing on a page of student work than there is student writing. Unfortunately this is not an efficient learning model. They require students to function at the lower levels of thinking and ensure that whatever information students do absorb will be gone within a day or two.

An effective classroom empowers all students to do most of the work. Most of us know this, yet these practices are not happening in many of our classrooms. Following are some simple suggestions and strategies to help shift the source of work in a classroom from the teacher to the student. These strategies redefine the role of the teacher (in the words of one of my colleagues) from a “sage on the stage” to a “guide on the side” as we facilitate student learning rather than dispense our own knowledge.

Strategy 1: Question Round Up

A Google search on Costa’s Levels of Thinking will give you a plethora of info, ideas, and even handouts on this inquiry tool. Personally I have moved away from using all but a single Costa’s poster. I found that my students were focusing too much on the stems and not on the thinking processes that define inquiry. Currently I give my students a description and a motion pattern of the thinking involved at each level. This makes Costa’s more portable (meaning students can use it wherever they are). I have found that physically representing each level of thinking as described below has increased the level and quality of the questions my students create. Here are the cues I use.

Level 1…answer is found in the text(source of info)

Action: Have one hand open in front of you and point to it with your other hand as you say these words.

Level 2…the source and you or source to source

Action:Same as for level one but after pointing to your hand point to your head. (Point an equal amount of time to both your hand and your head). Level 2 can also be source to source. (Point to one hand and then the other).

Level 3…mostly you. 

Action:Sweep your finger quickly across the hand that represents the book and then point to your head.

Here’s a strategy that builds on this approach.

Instead of having students answer the questions from their text try the following. Remember when I say “text” I mean whatever the students are getting information from. This could be a web page, a video, a painting…virtually any source of information.

Have each student create 3 Level 1 questions and write them on a piece of paper making sure they skip  at least five empty lines between each Level 1 question. Have them write Level 1 in front of each of these questions.

In groups of 3 have students rotate their papers.

Have students change  the Level 1 questions on the paper they receive into Level 2 questions. They will record their level 2 question under the Level 1 question. Make sure they write level 2 in front of each of these questions.

Switch papers again. Now have the students change the Level 2 questions into Level 3 questions. Once again have them record the questions being sure to label them Level 3

Have students return each paper to the original questioner (the person who wrote the level 1 questions. Have each student choose to answer any of their group’s questions. Tell them that Level 1 questions are worth 1 point; Level 2 questions are worth 2 points; and Level 3 questions are worth 3 points. Choose a total point value that students must answer. For example students could answer 10 or 15 points worth of questions.

In order to ensure that all students are participating have students use different colored inks or initial every question they wrote.

Consider….Who did the work in this activity? Who did the learning?

Strategy 2: Two-Four-Talk-Write

This strategy is an effective way to have students read more deeply. I like to use it with big ideas such as the causes of a war. It could also be used for themes or essential concepts such as  photosynthesis or as a way to tackle word problems.

First have students read a short piece of text…a page for example. In my case I had them use a reflective double entry journal on the War of 1812 and a page in their text book.

Next have elbow partners or pairs of students discuss the answer to a question you pose. Allow no more than two minutes for this.

 Now have groups of 4 students discuss their response and come to a common response that one of them will present to the entire group.

Have the reporter from each group share their response. Ask clarifying questions where necessary.

Instruct the class to begin amending their notes to reflect the common elements of the responses they hear as each group reports out.

I like to make this portion more challenging by eliminating pronouns. This forces the reporting student to be certain about his or her response.

Repeat this process 3 more times so that each student has had a chance to report out. By the end of the day every student will have read carefully, collaborated with peers, and participated orally.

Complete the activity by having students complete a quick write based on a prompt that arises out of the topic. For example: Which cause of the War of 1812 was the most important? Why?

I evaluate each group based on the accuracy of their group response. This score is balanced by the individual quick write response.

Consider….Who did the work in this activity? Who did the learning?

Strategy 3: The Final Word

Summary is one of the most effective learning tools and yet it is so often misrepresented as paraphrasing. This strategy uses physical activity to help build students’ capacity to delineate essential ideas from supporting details and superfluous information. I recently used this to have students develop their understanding of the results of the War of 1812.

Have students sit in groups of 3-4. Have students fold a piece of lined filler paper in half and put their names in the large white margin at the top of the page.

Have students identify a recorder.

Provide students with a question that will allow them to synthesize or evaluate information.

Give students about 3 minutes to fill up the half page with as many ideas related to the answer as they can brainstorm.

Have each group share out their answers in the following manner.

  1. Group 1 shares everything they wrote on the half sheet.
  • All other groups will highlight this information if they have it on their half sheet.
  • If a group does not have this information they will add it to their half sheet and then highlight it.
  1. Group 2 shares all information on their half sheet that has not been highlighted. Once again all other groups highlight or add and highlight.
  2. Continue this process until all groups have presented their  non-highlighted information

Now instruct each group to fold their half paper again (into fourths).

  1. Explain that each group now need to condense what is on the half sheet by writing the most important information onto the ¼ sheet.
  2. Explain that then the group will condense this information again and again as the sheet is folded into 1/8th  and then 1/16th and then 1/32nd and then 1/64th of the sheet of paper.
  3. Explain that the last fold should only have one word on it
  4. Explain that every time the paper is folded a new group member will be the recorder.

Allow 5-10 minutes for this process of rotating the paper to a new recorder, folding the paper, discussing what should be written, and writing the response until only once word remains.

Finally share out the one word response from each group.

Collect and score each group’s completed folded paper.

Extension: Using the final word as the core of a topic sentence write a paragraph/essay that answers the original prompt.

Consider….Who did the work in this activity? Who did the learning?

I hope you try one of these. Let me know how it goes. I would also love to hear about your strategies that foster student ownership of learning as well.

All for One and One for All

February 26, 2011

 

The Power of Collaboration

 

Exciting things are happening in my AVID class of late. The change arose out of my desire to increase student ownership of their twice weekly tutorials where trained college aged tutors facilitate small groups of six students as they help one other discover the answer to a problem each student has identified from their classes or homework.

I had been concerned that some students asked multiple questions of the student who was presenting, while others seemed content to take a back seat. I was also dissatisfied with the quality of my students’ tutorial notes and reflections.  Although I had tried speaking to individual students and even addressing the group and class as a whole I saw little had improvement.

That’s when I happened to stop by the office of an AP at my school. He and I somehow began talking about an experiment a college professor he knows conducts in his classes. He offers his classes the option of group or individual grades and although no class has chosen group grades the professor commented on the quality of the discussion as students were deciding which option to take. Furthermore the professor pointed out that research indicates that the achievement of all students increases with the group option.

This last comment is the one that sparked my interest. It stayed in my mind throughout the day and rumbled around in my head all evening. Eventually I made a decision to revamp how I graded the AVID tutorials. Students would continue to receive the grade they earned, but they would also earn the lowest grade in their tutorial group. So if someone earned a 38 and the lowest score for their group was a 30 that individual would receive the average of 34.  I presented the new approach to tutorial grading to the AVID students and tutors. I pointed out that the power of a tutorial lies in the involvement of everyone in the process. A good tutorial I underscored was present when everyone did well. We discussed the idea that each group member in a tutorial has a responsibility to the other group members. I asked them to think about their role in making sure that everyone in their group was successful.

It has been six weeks since our first “All for one and one for all!” tutorial and the results are in. On average tutorial scores have risen 10% over the scores prior to the scores when every student received just their individual grade. More encouraging is the lack of outlier low scores where students earn less than a B. Indeed the class average is now at an A-.  Students are more engaged and the discussions are becoming more complex. This is definitely becoming a routine of success.

Here is a link to the AVID Tutorial Worksheet we use.

Constitution meets AVID tutorial…Students Win

January 27, 2011

Constitution Meets AVID Tutorial…Students Win

One of the goals of any solid AVID program is to take the power of WICR (Writing Inquiry Collaboration Reading) out of the elective classroom and integrate it throughout the school. Two of the most challenging strategies to integrate into the core classes are the AVID tutorial process and the Socratic Seminar. Last week after years of gentle prodding my school made some successful growth in these areas. Several of my AVID students came to class excited that they had done a Socratic Seminar in their Language Arts class. Concurrently in my Eighth Grade US History class I had just revised and implemented a lesson on the Constitution where students take a scenario and resolve it based on information they find in the Constitution. In the past students have struggled to read the document and often produced incomplete answers that did not demonstrate they understood or had even read the primary document. I decided to infuse the AVID tutorial process of collaborative problem solving through inquiry to address this problem. The result was total engagement of all students as they successfully grappled with their dilemmas. The bonus was the richness of their answers as they analyzed their dilemma and used the Constitution to develop their response. Most striking was the complex thinking that revolved around questions and evidence. The nuances of both the dilemma and the Constitution emerged as they had never done before. I am excited to share these results with my department when we meet at our next collaboration meeting.

Here is the lesson

I used the scenarios from my History Alive manual, but these could be made up by any teacher or even taken from items in the news.

I gave students an overview of the day and the assignment.

Students worked in groups of 4. Each person in the group chose a letter A-D.

A single set of the 12 scenarios are given to each group. Students then put their letter next to any three scenarios on the page. I had student choose one scenario and then pass the paper. They did this three times until every scenario had been assigned.

Rules of Engagement were posted and explained.

Students were told that everyone had to help each person find an answer to their dilemma, but they could only do so by asking the person with the dilemma questions. It was explained that the only person who could make a statement was the one with the dilemma. Each dilemma would be considered resolved if the person with the dilemma could explain the solution to the group using references to the Constitution (This process is the core of the AVID tutorial).

The criteria for their written responses was demonstrated with a sample response.

As students worked on their dilemmas my role was to facilitate the discussions. I also modeled question asking for groups that had difficulty with this. This is an important role especially in modeling questions that push thinking. Finally I watched to make sure the group was holding to the “ask not tell” protocol.

As students found a solution to their dilemma they wrote a solution that cited the Constitution (Article/Section/Quote).

What surprised me was the elaboration of the responses that included the weakness of the information given in the dilemma. Many students concluded that they could only partially respond to their dilemma because of missing information. They then went on to explain what information was missing.

While one student was writing their response to their dilemma, the next person read their dilemma and they along with the other remaining group members began to scour the Constitution looking for information that would resolve the dilemma. Then the questioning began again.

The energy that revolved around a document that is over 200 years old was amazing.

Following is a link to the slides I used.

Constitution meetsAVID

Busy weekends ahead!

April 17, 2010

I am most blessed to be able to work with four maybe five different GEAR UP schools over the next few weekends. My research for two of the sites has led to some very interesting discoveries on the topics of effective group work and effective inquiry particularly in the way we as teachers ask questions. As usual my handouts and comments will be posted here after the workshops.

Currently I am incorporating some of these techniques into my own classroom. This has meant some revamping of how I form my groups for a jigsaw for the social history of the US from 1820 to 1865. I am eager to see how it affects student learning.

Look at this site for some info and resources on these topics http://www.fisherandfrey.com